References

If you want to go further than the information we’ve provided on the other pages of this site, here are a few references to get you started. And most of these references have further references.

You may be feeling skeptical about our claims at this point, and if so we sure understand. We’ve had the same initial reactions from everyone we’ve dealt with, including NASA and folks from the U.S. DOD, so you’re in good company. But reactions change when they see our stuff fly. Empiricism rules.

The Science and Technology of Flying

Book:

Understanding Flight, Anderson & Eberhardt, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2009.

PDF:

A Physical Description of Flight – Revisited”, Anderson & Eberhardt, based on their book Understanding Flight.

Model Airplanes, The Bernoulli Equation, and the Coanda Effect”, Jef Raskin.

The Physics of Airplanes”, Robert Kunzig, Discovery Magazine, April 2001.

How Do Airplanes Fly – Really?” A staff report from the Straight Dope Science Advisory Board. [One of the clearest, simplest, and shortest of explanations – with references.]

HTML:

See How it Flies, Chapter 3: “Airfoils and Airflow”. John S. Denker.

How do airplanes fly, really?” A staff report from the Straight Dope Science Advisory Board.

From “How Airplanes Work”: “Physicists classify both liquids and gases as fluids, based on how they flow. Even though air, water and pancake syrup may seem like very different substances, they all conform to the same set of mathematical relationships. In fact, basic aerodynamic tests are sometimes performed underwater. To put it simply, a salmon essentially flies through the sea, and a pelican swims through the air.”

Coanda & his Effect

The man:

Henri Marie Coanda”, a brief biography from the Aeronautics Learning Laboratory for Science, Technology, and Research.

Henri Coanda in Wikipedia.

The effect:

The Coanda Effect (HTML)

Use of the Coanda Effect for Jet Deflection and Vertical Lift with Multiple-flat-plate and Curved-plate Deflection Surfaces“, Uwe H. von Glahn, NACA Tech Note 4377, September 1958. (PDF)

Implementations of the Coanda Effect

Blown flaps:

“Development of the general concept continued at NASA in the 1950s and 60s, leading to simplified systems with similar performance. The externally-blown flap arranges the engine to blow across the flaps at the rear of the wing. Some of the jet exhaust is deflected downward directly by the flap, while additional air travels through the slots in the flap and follows the outer edge due to the Coanda Effect. The similar upper-surface blowing system arranges the engines over the wing and relies completely on the Coanda Effect to redirect the airflow. Although not as effective as direct blowing, these “powered lift” systems are nevertheless quite powerful and much simpler to build and maintain.” [More…]

Circulation Control Wing (CCW):

“The CCW works by increasing the velocity of the airflow over the leading edge and trailing edge of a specially designed aircraft wing using a series of blowing slots that eject high pressure jet air. The wing has a rounded trailing edge to tangentially eject the air through the Coanda Effect thus causing lift. The increase in velocity of the airflow over the wing also adds to the lift force through conventional airfoil lift production.”

Other Coanda Effect Applications:

Inclined hydropower screens, automotive windshield washers without moving parts, air conditioning improvements, cardiovascular medicine, flying saucers… and more.

Black IWA

Internal Wing Aircraft

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Coanda Effect Research

Investigating the Use of the Coanda Effect to Create Novel Unmanned Aerial Vehicles” (1.6MB PDF). Barlow, Chris and Lewis, Darren and Prior, Stephen D. and Odedra, Sid and Erbil, Mehmet Ali and Karamanoglu, Mehmet and Collins, R. (2009). International Conference on Manufacturing and Engineering Systems. Proceedings . pp. 386-391. ISSN 2152-1522 . (From the Middlesex University Research Repository.)

ABSTRACT: “In recent years the demand for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles(UAV’s) has increased rapidly across many different industries and they are used for various applications. Such systems have the ability to enter dangerous or inaccessible environments and allow vital information to be collected without human risk. In order to carry out a task, a UAV has to face many different challenges. This has led to the development of novel platforms that move away from traditional aircraft design in order to make them more capable. A good example of this type of craft is one which uses the Coanda Effect to assist propulsion. This effect was discovered in 1930 by Henri-Marie Coanda who found that if a thin film of air is directed over a curved body, then the air follows the curve. When used to propel a UAV, the Coanda Effect also entrains air from above and lowers the air pressure in this region, which in turn generates more lift. Many organizations have attempted to use this phenomenon to aid the lift of various unusual air vehicles.”

Quote from the text:

“In simple terms, a stream of air at high velocity will attach to a curved surface rather than follow a straight line in its original direction. This stream will also entrain air from around it to increase the overall mass flow rate of the stream of air. This phenomenon can be harnessed to produce lift in two ways. Firstly, it can be used to change the direction of airflow to point downwards, resulting in efpressure above the body, which results in lift.”

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